How to Correctly Calculate TDS

Calculating Tax Deducted at Source (TDS) accurately is crucial to ensure compliance with tax regulations and avoid any discrepancies. The TDS calculation process can vary depending on the nature of the payment and the applicable tax rates. Here’s a step-by-step guide on how to correctly calculate TDS:

Step 1: Determine the Applicable Section

The first step in calculating TDS is to identify the relevant section of the Income Tax Act under which TDS is applicable. Different sections prescribe TDS on various types of payments, such as Section 192 for salaries, Section 194A for interest income, and Section 194C for contractor payments, among others.

Step 2: Verify TAN of the Deductor

If you are the deductor, ensure that you have a valid Tax Deduction and Collection Account Number (TAN). If you don’t have one, obtain it from the Income Tax Department.

Step 3: Ascertain the Threshold Limit

Check if the payment amount exceeds the threshold limit specified under the relevant section. TDS is only applicable if the payment amount crosses the specified limit. If the payment is below the threshold, no TDS needs to be deducted.

Step 4: Determine the Applicable TDS Rate

Once you confirm that TDS is applicable, find the relevant TDS rate for the particular payment. The Income Tax Act specifies different rates for different types of income. For instance, the TDS rate on salaries might differ from the rate on interest income.

Step 5: Consider Eligible Deductions and Exemptions

Certain payments may be eligible for deductions or exemptions, reducing the taxable amount. For example, salary income may have deductions for Provident Fund contributions and professional tax. Ensure that these deductions are factored in while calculating TDS.

Step 6: Calculate TDS Amount

To calculate the TDS amount, multiply the applicable TDS rate by the taxable amount after deducting eligible deductions and exemptions. The formula is:

TDS Amount = Taxable Amount x Applicable TDS Rate

Step 7: Round Off the TDS Amount

Round off the calculated TDS amount to the nearest rupee. TDS amounts are always rounded off to the nearest whole number.

Step 8: Verify PAN of the Deductee

If you are the deductor, ensure that you have the Permanent Account Number (PAN) of the deductee (the person receiving the payment). PAN is mandatory for TDS deduction and remittance.

Step 9: Deduct TDS and Deposit with the Government

As the deductor, deduct the TDS amount from the payment to the deductee and deposit it with the government within the specified due date. Use the appropriate Challan (usually Challan 281) to remit the TDS amount.

Step 10: Issue TDS Certificates

After deducting and depositing TDS, issue TDS certificates (Form 16, Form 16A, etc.) to the deductees, as per the prescribed formats and timelines.


Correctly calculating TDS is crucial to ensure proper compliance with tax laws and avoid penalties. By following the steps outlined above and staying updated with the latest TDS rates and provisions, taxpayers can accurately calculate and remit TDS, contributing to a seamless tax administration process.

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